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Text Messaging & Ian Pearson’s other inventions

I’ve started digging out some of my old articles from the early 1990s. It is a long time ago, so the articles are of no lingering commercial interest to BT where I worked at the time, but they are useful to document some of the engineering culture of the time. We had a pretty good idea even then of how much of today’s IT world would play out, but it was a time when computing was converging explosively with telecoms, where ideas were easy to come by simply because the space was so large and there were so few of us in the field. Most of the inventions I made then have long since either happened or disappeared. Some of them are inconsequential or mundane (some not even worth bothering to list here), others apparently in opposition to the laws of physics, but some of them were spot on. I am of course especially pleased to make a claim to be the inventor of text messaging in October 1991, though the version I came up with was for the fixed network and the SMS one that later took off was the one by the GSM standards people that they invented totally independently. However, mine would have worked very well on the fixed telephone network at the time, and would have ported easily to the mobile networks in due course (hardly anyone had mobile phones in 1991). I had no idea until recently whether someone else had come up with the same idea earlier, but now that companies are happily disclosing this kind of stuff on the net, and there are a few claims out there, I am happy that mine dates back quite early. It looks like a lot of us independently came up with the same ideas but that is quite the norm these days in engineering. Engineers are all exposed to similar stimuli, and often come up with the same ideas as their competitors in the same week or month. None of us patented it but everyone benefits.

I’ll add the rest of my early ideas to this list as I have time to edit the cover notes, but here are the ones I’ve edited so far. The dates listed are the date when I got round to writing them up, so some appear to be in batches. I’ve omitted many that were intended solely for BT use, such as reconfigurable exchanges and interfaces conversion tools. They are unlikely to be of any interest now to anyone. I can’t list many ideas after 1994 since they could still be of possible commercial interest to BT. The ones I have listed have been developed elsewhere, such as the ego badge, or are simply no longer worthwhile, such as the active 35mm slides.

Active contact lens, May 1991

Active 35mm slides, Nov 1994

Advanced joystick, July 1991

Advanced battery charger, Nov 92

Brain refresh mechanism, April 1991

Carbon fullerene uses, Dec 1991

Carbon fullerene micromotors, March 92

Electron Pipe, July 1991

Email security threats, Dec 1991

Emergency distress beacon for women, March 1992

Eyeball camera applications, 1993

Home barcode reader, 1992

Optical storage magazine inserts, March 92

I recently compiled a full list of my inventions, or as full as I could make. My very few pre-1986 inventions cannot be listed since they are classified - I worked in the missile industry at the time. I also can’t list inventions made as part of paid consultancy or workshop participation where confidentiality applies or the client owns the ideas as part of the contract. Many others have simply been lost. Often these were from brainstorms where they were never typed up. There are long ‘droughts’ of inventions in this list, indicating that I have misplaced entire folders of projects. If and when these turn up, I will add them. This list is well over 1800 so far, more recent ones not listed.

1987 Hardware evolution using FPGAs
1987 Addressed Time Slices
1987 ORAC, Optical Router And Controller (a wavelength routing device)
1988 Universal Carrier for an optical residential network (UNICORN)
1988 Package Switching
1988 Predictive tracking for mobile phones
1988 Phased array mobile phone antennae
1988 Network physical/protocol resonance DoS attack
1988 Network synchronisation technique: Nanosecond pulse centre location using D-type array
1989 Bit-nobbling ranging mechanism
1989 Mobile ranging mechanism
1989 Bit interleaving return channel for improved network synchronisation
1989 Variable optical delay mechanism
1989 WDM Concentrator
1989 Mobile data bandwidth optimisation technique
1989 Information wave overload attack
1989 Correlated traffic for DoS attacks
1990 Capacity doubler for Orwell protocol
1990 FATMAN, Free-format Addressed Time-slice Metropolitan Area Network etc
1990 Radiation based random dumber generator for traffic simulation
1990 Exponential random number traffic generator
1990 Virtual travel
1990 Virtual offices and virtual companies
1990 Shared virtual spaces using VR or large screens
1990 Full sensory VR
1990 Telepresence in robot via VR
1990 AI assisted video games
1990 Cloud based jamming/collaborative music production
1991 Active contact lens
1991 Text messaging
1991 Instant voice messaging
1991 Instant shared comms for groups of teens, with voice message direction
1991 Video messaging
1991 Video postcards
1991 Hybrid physical/virtual roller coasters
1991 Self-driving cars
1991 Smart roads and driverless transport system
1991 SatNav
1991 SatNav head up display
1991 Location-based maps
1991 Personalised maps
1991 Route planning
1991 On-line dating
1991 Online shopping, banking, medicine, working…
1991 Online doctors and other professions
1991 On-line gambling
1991 On-line news
1991 On-line recruitment agency
1991 On-line publishing and subscription services
1991 On-line trading
1991 On-line translation
1991 Talking books
1991 Online gaming – FPS, MUDs, MMPORGS, quizzes etc
1991 On-line music on demand
1991 On-line video on demand
1991 On-line horoscopes
1991 Cloud-based computing
1991 Cloud based software, PAYG S/W
1991 Software trials before buying
1991 Credit card verification
1991 Credit checking
1991 Criminal tracking
1991 On-line encyclopedia
1991 MIDI connection across network
1991 Mobile videophone
1991 SSD-based computers and mobiles
1991 Smart-phones with voice and gesture interfaces
1991 Automated line fault notification
1991 Wand (far simpler way of doing what Nintendo much later did with their wand)
1991 Detection of wand end state and location using gyros or dead reckoning systems
1991 Detection of wand end state and location using LEDs with quadrant photodiode detection
1991 Detection of wand end state and location using raster scanned light beam/reflection detection
1991 Detection of wand end state and location using striped ends
1991 Detection of curved wands using multiple reflectors to enable sculpt tools
1991 Use of two wands to create planar or dynamic data
1991 Use of pulsed or flashing LEDs for extra functionality
1991 Use of smart materials or inbuilt electronics to add additional functions
1991 Electron pipe
1991 Carbon fullerene uses: high order Space Division Multiplexor
1991 Carbon fullerene uses: On-chip interconnect
1991 Carbon fullerene uses: micro-ion drive
1991 Carbon fullerene uses: on-chip cooling
1991 Carbon fullerene uses: micro-motors
1991 Carbon fullerene uses: inert micro-magnets
1991 Remote home intercom
1991 Enhanced joystick
1991 Evolutionary software development – Darwinian and Lamarckian variants
1991 Niche-adaptive self-optimising code
1991 Hybrid un-compiled-compiled code for optimised evolution and speed
1991 Self-replicating machines
1991 Artificial life
1991 VR relay for robot mounted sensors, remote sensing
1991 Evolutionary hardware development using FPGAs
1991 Biomimetic network regeneration mechanism
1991 Biomimetic self-organisation using hormone gradients akin to embryonic cell differentiation
1991 Membrane based biomimetic self-organisation for networks
1991 Seed-based biomimetic virtual network fabrication
1991 Biomimetic cloud based virus control
1991 Biomimetic software design for graceful degradation
1991 Time-compressed delivery of video or audio
1991 Area/ZIP Code translation
1991 Time-sensitive information service – high speed delivery
1991 Time-sensitive information service – guaranteed synchronised delivery for City
1991 E-mail security threat using Trojans, viruses, spyware
1991 Polymer neural network
1991 High speed public terminal network
1991 Virtual video recorder (video on demand)
1991 Machine-enhanced creativity
1991 Machine based senses (e.g. radiation, magnetic fields etc)
1991 Machine-based body add-ons
1991 Singularity & mechanism - Positive feedback loop for accelerating AI evolution
1991 Golf aiming assistant for high wind
1991 Network based auctions (ebay)
1991 Network enhanced biofeedback
1991 Video walls
1991 Brainstorm seeding service
1992 2600 services list for global information superhighway (now the web/internet)
1992 Smart mirror
1992 Avatar customisation for video services
1992 Electronic makeup
1992 Electronic democracy
1992 Network based car keys
1992 Vehicle tracking/delivery tracking
1992 Voice changing/disguising services
1992 Voice recognition based services
1992 Voice dictation of text messages
1992 Networked whiteboard
1992 On-line geneaology services
1992 Interface translation
1992 Malicious call alarms, real time
1992 Direct brain link to supersmart machines for IQ, memory, sensory enhancement
1992 Direct access to all stored human knowledge
1992 Direct brain link-based telepathy
1992 Electronic immortality via direct brain link and mind download
1992 Personality sharing and download
1992 Mind transplants, swapping and borrowing
1992 Shared consciousness, shared bodies
1992 Computer re-creation of any physical sensation into user
1992 Full alternative reality creation linking many people: The Matrix (I called it The Medium)
1992 Direct pleasure production, orgasm by email
1992 Tele-dildonics
1992 Direct memory stimulation, brain refresh mechanism
1992 Experience postcards
1992 Using direct experience creation in therapy
1992 Criminal punishment by simulating victim experience
1992 Instant training, instant education
1992 Suicide by withdrawal into cyberspace or personality replacement
1992 Electronic life support systems
1992 The Care Economy
1992 New Renaissance (later resurfaced in 2007)
1992 ANTS (autonomous network telephers) + many ANT species/functions and network mgt techniques
1992 Escorted packets
1992 Network executable packets
1992 Active packets
1992 Dynamic route optimisation using ANTS
1992 Assorted ANT-based security tools
1992 Packet routing by pheromone gradient
1992 Fast Circuit Switching
1992 Emergency beacon, child distress alarm and location
1992 Child tracking
1992 RPC agency
1992 On-line art galleries, downloads
1992 On-line directories
1992 On-line AI-based support services
1992 On-line travel agencies, estate agencies, escort agencies…
1992 On-line diagnostics, testing, fault control, repair, updates…
1992 Chat lines
1992 Junk filters
1992 On-line meeting services
1992 Smart meter services
1992 Packetized electricity
1992 Net-based lottery services
1992 Remote printing
1992 IoT – remote sensing, control, management, metering, software updates etc
1992 Home control, management, automation, monitoring
1992 Full suite security services – ID, biometrics, remote access, monitoring etc
1992 Inter-robot comms
1992 Networked intercom with auto-dialler for remote access checking
1992 Remote eyeball camera
1992 Location-based advertising
1992 Location based customised/personalised maps populated with key locations
1992 Context dependent taxation/dynamic tax
1992 GPS-based cellular handover smoothing
1992 Friends and family location tracking
1992 GPS location-based directional antennas
1992 GPS bus arrival time estimating
1992 GPS taxi management service – including hailing nearest cab
1992 Reconfigurable exchange using FPGAs and programmable logic devices
1992 Real time audio quality selection/control during call
1992 Battery lifetime maintenance device
1992 Public transport power supply & telecoms sockets
1992 Software transforms for enhanced reliability and crash reduction
1992 Interference-based processing
1992 Optical beacon with planar multiplexing
1992 High density optical storage for multimedia magazine on single sheet
1992 Idea exchanges
1992 Video surveillance networked neighbourhood watch system
1993 Social networking, entertainment, agencies, media, education and self-fulfilment services
1993 Interactive TV
1993 Eyeball cameras, e.g. remote presence in toy plane cockpit, duct maintenance etc
1993 Action Man with networked video cameras as eyes, child could be Action Man
1993 Virtual keyboard
1993 Compact card
1993 SatNavs
1993 Imputers
1993 Data bikinis
1993 VR based home shopping
1993 VR & AR interfaces for most services
1993 Video home intercom
1993 AI-based personal assistants
1993 Secured remote viewing neighbourhood surveillance net
1994 ‘I fancy you’ reciprocation badge (activates on mutual attraction)
1994 Ego badge/personality badge (dating and introductions badge)
1994 Emotional jewellery
1994 Digital bubbles
1994 Massively multiplayer virtual environments
1994 Cybernations
1994 Dual geo-cyber citizenship
1994 Shadow democracy
1994 Electronic agent-based referenda
1994 kindle style e-book with no power required for display and paper-equivalent contrast
1994 Emoticons
1994 Machine input of subconscious body outputs (e.g. skin resistance, pupil dilation etc)
1994 Video T-shirt
1994 Fly-by-wire society
1994 Direct sensory stimulation
1994 Toaster printer for messages/pics on toast
1994 Active 35mm slides
1994 Rapid numeric ordering system for catalogues and magazines
1994 Phone based email system
1994 Advertising on hold
1994 Personalised TV advertisements
1994 Travelling cells
1994 Virtual reality golden paths
1994 VR lens
1994 Alphanumeric messaging on home phones using no-ring dial-up
1994 Audio bulletin boards for blind people
1994 Wallet computer (using PCMCIA cards)
1994 Bar-code reader in mobile as shopping list device
1994 Emergency information autodialling barcode on medicine packets
1994 Role-based numbering
1994 Calling person ID
1994 Electronic greeting cards
1994 Remote video recorder programming
1994 Network based virus/Trojan detection
1994 Automated cheapest route calling
1994 Athlete bio-signs monitoring and real time broadcast to fans during games
1994 Athlete history databases
1994 Night-time bulk data distribution over TV channels
1994 Instant replay
1994 Electronic addictions
1994 Secular religion substitutes (e.g. global warming, political correctness)
1994 AI automation leading to backlash
1994 Active membranes, transport and receptors
1994 Smart skin for intelligent clothing or human repair
1994 Cuddly robotic interface
1995 Folding watch computer
1995 Wrist-worn health monitors linked to cloud
1995 Electronic Paintings
1995 Voice/gesture interfaces for disabled people
1995 Face recognition and expression recognition
1995 Finger-based thought recognition interfaces for disabled people
1995 Memory stick storage
1995 Tablet computers for magazines, newspapers, personal TV, electronic books
1995 10” tablet-based videophone
1995 VR-enhanced exercise machines
1995 Mini video cameras for remote home security
1995 3D printers
1995 Multifunction office machines
1995 Solar robot lawnmower
1995 Robot exercise companions
1995 Nanotech plants and toys
1995 Ultrathin portable devices using polymer batteries
1995 Virtual windows using displays
1995 Home health diagnostics, blood sampling, blood pressure, video consultation
1995 Hydraulic chairs for home VR use
1998 Several forms of future electronic cash
1995 Analog cash (for online use)
1995 Labelled and negotiable online cash
1995 Time and context dependent vouchers
1995 Algorithmic cash
1995 Smart pocket money – variable proportions limited to certain purchase types
1995 Celebrity cash
1995 Tracked cash
1995 optical wireless range improver
1995 Local delivery centres for online shopping
1995 Try-on outlets
1995 Future human evolution chart
1995 Homo Cyberneticus
1995 Homo Optimus
1995 Robotus Primus
1995 Robotus Multitudinus
1995 Homo Machinus
1995 Homo Hybridus
1995 Viva Novus
1996 LED jewellery
1996 Smart cone
1995 Mind wars, mind editing or deletion
1995 Mindcatcher chip
1996 Timeshare bodies and androids
1996 Spore based space travel (nanotech storage of minds with nano-assemblers)
1996 Black box economy
1996 Personal assistant badge
1996 Machine-dependent society
1996 Nomadic information companies avoiding tax
1996 Tax avoidance for global internet companies
1996 Labelled tax
1997 Smart skin for intelligent clothing & human repair (idea resurfaced as major invention class in 2001)
1997 VR home exercisers
1997 Disability assistance devices using thought recognition
1997 Electronic implants to stimulate muscles in disabled people
1997 Wearable health monitor
1997 Robot exercise companion
1997 Creativity gap
1997 Hybrid rail/road vehicles
1997 Telework centres
1997 Voting on international affairs (such as environment) in other countries
1998 Packetized rail with 200 x capacity compared to existing system
1998 Instability dangers of high frequency trading
1998 Video tattoos
1998 Tribal signalling
1998 Virtual windows
1998 Audio jewellery
1998 Video photo frames
1998 Cyberspace makeup
1998 Computer-enhanced dreaming
1998 Dream linking
1998 Cameras built into glasses to record all you see
1998 Micro-actuators in clothes for sensory feedback
1998 Air mouse, air typing, using hand and finger tracking
1998 Flowers using electronic inks
1998 Kitchen rage
1998 Shape and colour changing jewellery
1998 Smart boarding cards (inc navigation through airport)
1998 Insect-sized robots for military use
1998 Robotic fish
1998 Xmas gifts for AIs and robots
1998 Automated shopping list compiling by supermarkets
1998 In-store positioning systems
1998 Point of sale personal taxation
1998 Cats eyes with speed cameras
1998 Software Lego, networked Lego
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror with camera and display
1998 Use of any mirror with active lenses to make smart mirror
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror image reversal
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror zoom
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror reality concealment, reality postponement
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror blemish highlighting
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror avatar design, videoconferencing image design
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror makeup by numbers
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror feature adjustment advice, recommended colours
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror side by side comparison of options
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror magazine program downloads
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror makeup manufacturer packaging or web links
1998 Smart digital bathroom mirror DIY virtual cosmetic surgery
1998 Mirrors as conferencing terminals
1998 Laser hairdresser
1998 Polymer display bathroom tiles and for bath magazine tablets
1998 Fully immersive bathroom environment
1998 Shower body scan health monitor
1998 Shower body scan for clothes fitting data
1998 Strain gauges in shower floor as bathroom scales
1998 Ultrasound shower body scan for tumour detection
1998 Smart toothbrush health monitoring
1998 Computer games integrated with toothbrush to encourage child brushing
1998 Widespread biometric ID and customisation around bathroom
1998 Robot chat show host
1998 First published warning of Islamic cyber-terrorism
1999 Neural suspension gel
1999 Gel computing
1999 Plasticine analog computer
1999 Network/cloud enhanced toys (Talk to Barbie or Furbie)
1999 Smart Barbie with full sensory input and personality chip
1999 Outsourced vegetable plots
1999 Schrodinger’s computer (takes on all possible forms of circuit and redesigns itself
2000 Concept encoding
2000 Relative positioning fields
2000 Pauli switch (single electron switch), aka Ionic computing
2001 Sensation recording and replay
2001 Active skin - architecture + 598 active skin inventions, see Appendix:
2001 Active makeup
2001 Accelerated sports learning
2001 Dangers of networked stupidity
2001 Wildcard exponentiation risk
2001 Vertical sectoring in mobile antennas
2001 Rollover keys
2001 Design for conscious machine
2001 Symbiotic network relay
2001 Digital air
2001 Digital air: trapped
2001 Digital air: bubbles
2001 Digital air: clouds
2001 Digital air: sticky
2001 Digital air: messy
2001 Digital air: dry
2001 Digital air: volatile
2001 Digital air: mobile
2001 Digital air: pheromones
2001 Digital air: air fauna and flora, food chain
2001 Digital air: scenery
2001 Digital air: visible information streams
2001 Edible electronics
2001 Smart Jelly Babies
2001 Smart medications
2001 Timed message delivery
2001 Audio postcards
2001 Postcode based news
2001 Real time recipes
2001 Automatic security defence tests
2001 Humming interface - playing musical instruments music composition, conversion and notation
2001 Trending lists
2001 Group audio messaging
2001 Smart fuse for remote control and telemetry for any mains powered device (IoT)
2001 Personal shopper avatars in supermarket augmented reality
2001 Avatar-based presenters for personalised TV
2001 Avatar directories
2001 Context dependent avatars, role, time location…
2001 Caller based personalised ringtones
2001 Thought recognition keys, biometric security
2001 Optical means of implementing emotions in conscious computing
2001 Heisenberg Resonator for quantum computation
2001 Neural gel optical computer with evolutionary programming
2001 AI in dolls linked to cyberspace soaps
2001 High density storage in magnetic postcards
2001 Smart ink with tiny (e.g RFID, quantum dots) chips or microcapsule suspension
2001 Smart ink pen that writes digital signature in ink
2001 Magnetic post-it notes/tags for easy file/media exchange
2001 Personal publishing system (like Kindle self-publishing)
2001 MP3 ring tones
2001 Automated system for nuisance call notification
2001 Single network-based file location for access from any device
2001 System architecture for physical objects with cyberspace presence and functions
2001 Wireless LAN security with geographic key
2001 Information frequency sorting
2001 Indoor location using ultrasound beacons
2001 Lenticular lens-based positioning system
2001 Location by digital paper + holographic lens variant
2001 Barcode projection based location
2001 Colour balance based positioning
2001 Inverted cell based positioning
2001 Floor pattern positioning
2001 Caller dependent ring tones
2001 Caller-dependent engaged tone substitution
2001 Position/role/customer/context-based avatars
2001 Avatar as ring tone
2001 Avatar soaps under social group control
2001 Avatar reading of audio books
2001 Storage based nets
2001 Selectable audio background on calls
2001 Magnetic or resistive security system for implant on fingertip
2001 Fingerprint recognition system using print + active skin
2001 Cyberspace compass to find and identify key network access
2002 High quality bedroom video link to remote parent
2002 Avatar counsellors, teachers, administrators, assistants etc
2002 Gel chip gel-computing suspension model
2002 Ultra-simple computing
2002 Just-in-time computing, just in time OS
2002 JIT OS design, onion architecture
2002 ANT-based computing-telecom convergence
2002 FPGA-ANT mapping
2002 Software transforms for algorithm translation between linear and parallel computation
2002 Air-gapped system OS update
2002 Activators
2002 Distributed sensory system
2002 Sensor-processor linking algorithms
2002 Cooperative sensory data distribution system
2002 Sensor data – information – truth and knowledge extraction algorithm
2002 Reactive street lighting (brightens as someone approaches)
2002 Automated knowledge extraction and concept development using knowledge waves
2002 Filter and Interference mechanisms for use in machine consciousness
2002 ‘Second opinion’ automated knowledge filtering
2002 Universal connectors for power, comms and interfacing (now e.g. USB)
2002 Ripple scheduler for distributed self-organising multiprocessor systems
2002 Marked Idle scheduler for distributed self-organising multiprocessor systems
2002 Cellular scheduler for distributed self-organising multiprocessor systems
2002 Multidimensional cells for use with distributed self-organising multiprocessor systems
2002 ‘Curved space’ scheduler for distributed self-organising multiprocessor systems
2002 Ribbon processor scheduler, processing rings
2002 Ribbon memory
2002 Ribbon computing and travel within simulated timeline for proteomics simulation acceleration
2002 Slime mould processor scheduling
2002 Activator-based computing, soft boundaries between computing entities
2002 ‘Just good enough’ cellular automata algorithmic simplification
2002 Fungal companies, corporate DNA, corporate viruses
2002 Magentic field (using colours as emotions in optical computing)
2002 Cyberspace tunnel in kids’ bedrooms leading to safe shared spaces
2002 e-ink displays in track shoes
2002 Software Lego
2003 Smart bacteria
2003 Smart bacteria assembling and powering their own electronics
2003 Smart yoghurt
2003 Transbacteria, Transbacteria Society
2003 Use of bioluminescence to communicate between smart bacteria
2003 Bacteria enabled grey goo
2003 21st Century Piety
2004 e-baybies – any couple mixing their DNA to produce range of potential babies
2004 Virtual womb, virtual pregnancy
2004 Viruses aimed at toys
2004 Barbie dolls that ask for allowances
2004 Sex: linking bodies via implants
2004 Shared bodies
2004 Shared sensations
2004 Experience inheritance
2004 Direct sex between minds
2004 Satellite location device implants for pets
2004 Remote control devices to control pet muscles
2004 Living GM Furbie
2004 Clothes collecting solar power
2004 Sex via neural coupling to androids
2004 Sensations from missing limbs or organs
2004 Dual architecture/dual appearance
2004 Duality impact of virtual/real
2004 VR politicians linked to AI
2004 Cinema projection copyright protection
2004 Directional messaging (by pointing a phone at target)
2004 Inter-car messaging (+ voice)
2004 Mechanisms to offer fully open wireless access within tightly controlled physical boundary
2004 Physiotherapy monitor to check patients are following regime, using variable conductivity input on skin surface
2005 Smart breast implants
2005 Piezoelectric imager stepper for higher res digital camera images
2005 Robot gladiators, coliseum
2005 Business genealogy database
2005 Social sharing of playlists
2005 Computer games for dolls
2005 Body ring tones
2005 Lifestyle branding
2005 AR art overlays, streets as art galleries
2005 AR street theatre
2005 Digital graffiti
2005 Personal information radiation
2005 VR hamster ball for running in a pseudo natural environment
2005 Virtual location-based hamster food dispenser
2005 Display lined walls to virtually extend child’s bedroom
2005 RFID tags for sibling-proof devices
2005 Paypal wishing well
2005 Cultural archaeology and resurrection
2005 Friendship memory tokens
2005 Social proximity phone
2005 Faith badges
2005 Virtual pheromone trails
2005 RFID credit tags
2005 Point and identify for mobiles
2005 Point and send
2005 Office in your arm
2005 On-line gambling to include alien contests, not just virtual horse races
2005 Digital enzymes for digital processing, deconstruction, rebuilding
2005 Question-based devices
2005 Question-based devices: Where are you?
2005 Question-based devices: Do you want to?
2005 Question-based devices: What tribe do you belong to?
2005 Question-based devices: What is your status?
2005 Question-based devices: What can I do for you?
2005 Question-based devices: What can you do for me?
2005 Question-based devices: Why should I talk to you?
2005 Question-based devices: Who the hell are you?
2005 Question-based devices: What are you doing?
2005 Question-based devices: What authority do you have
2005 Statement based devices:
2005 Statement based devices: I am
2005 Statement based devices: Here is my art
2005 Statement based devices: This is my status
2005 Statement based devices: This is what I want
2005 Statement based devices: This is my property
2005 Statement based devices: This is my patch
2005 Statement based devices: These are my friends
2005 Statement based devices: Here are my ideas
2005 Micropoems – a single line
2005 Microart –part of art
2005 Micromusic – just a bar or two
2005 Love babies - spontaneous generation of combined personality in casual meeting
2005 Love babies: Baby = friendship bracelet
2005 Digital strokes, compliments, love tokens, signed and anonymous
2005 Cultural energy capture: harvest creative energy, broadcast help requests
2005 Personality cam
2005 Profiling as hobby
2005 AI-assisted flirting
2005 Navel gazing
2005 Autodiary
2005 Partner diary
2005 RFID stickers associate memory with objects
2005 Memory cards, capture real memories digitally
2005 Play in home scanner bowl, just chuck in card, or artefact with RFID sticker on it
2005 Social significance of marketing, RFID
2005 Printable sticky labels + smart media cards
2005 Temporally long messages – play over time rather than text based one-off, digital flowers and paintings
2005 Activity messages
2005 Navigation messages, treasure hunts
2005 Catalytic technologies
2005 Cultural mining to get new services by analog to ritual
2005 Diwali lights
2005 Perception change via head up display, cyberdrugs
2005 Alternative culture immersion, day holidays
2005 Object avatars
2005 Emoticon avatars – make emotions visible
2005 Body language decoder for socially unskilled (or foreign) using gesture recognition
2006 Risk of virus passing from machine to man
2005 Digital masks
2005 Digital street theatre
2005 New dark age
2005 Anti-knowledge
2005 Cyberdrugs
2005 Electronically activated drugs
2005 Synchronised club drugs
2005 Hybrid TMS/smart drugs
2005 Augmented reality sensory translation for disabled people
2005 Age of magic
2005 Reverse password ID from banking sites to avoid spoofing
2005 Politics badges, activist badges for e-action coordination/implementation
2005 Reactive packaging
2005 Packaging that includes free virtual items for games, e.g. magic swords
2005 Packaging with video panels
2005 Pot noodle tag base
2005 Pot Noodle Lid game link
2005 Jigsaw viruses
2005 Sleeper circuits
2005 Paper magazines with e-ink panels
2005 Jigsaw packaging
2005 T-shirt video ads
2005 Online order and collect from instore
2005 IT age of enlightenment
2005 Spore-based space travel via wormholes and nanotech mind storage
2005 Sky-glow and loss of awe
2005 Aeroplane reflectors or transponders as low satellites
2005 Social tunnelling
2005 Dual architecture
2006 ‘Invisible’ buildings
2006 Invisible as ‘the new black’
2006 Digital aura
2006 Viewer-dependent avatars
2006 Stepford Society
2006 Nationality problem for androids (with globally networked minds)
2006 Carbon reefs for plastic recycling and coastal erosion protection
2006 Duality of electronic-cyberpsace/organic life
2006 Electric (linear induction motor) bicycle lane
2006 Variable assistance bicycle lanes
2006 Hyperloop (exactly same idea)
2006 Supermarket fauna using AR
2006 Video microwave
2006 Peel-off electronics
2006 Packaging label inserts for microwave control
2006 Re-purposed RFID tags
2006 Nuclear waste disposal by mixing with backfill in the original uranium mines
2007 Gaia 2.0
2007 Network enhanced organisms using implanted IT (sensory or processing)
2007 Dating sites for wild animals
2007 Immigration from cyberspace
2007 Rise of the polymath
2007 The New Renaissance
2007 RFID tagged wooden spoons in pubs for electronic ordering, optional barcode or RFID reader
2007 Mixed virtual environments for pub décor
2007 Dual pub environments for meeting distant friends
2007 Memory stick networks
2007 Wireless memory sticks
2007 Electronic jewellery
2007 Jewellery Networks
2007 Sponge networks
2007 ISP-free networks
2007 Social jewellery
2007 Cultural pollution
2007 Scalextric model for powering electric cars using inductive mats and capacitor banks
2008 Digital trespassing using augmented reality
2008 Sporting Champion equation
2008 Computer-activated sports supplements using rupturable capsules
2008 Genetic advantage based sports handicap systems
2008 Computer game character confidants/therapists for kids
2008 Carer interaction with young kids via networked dolls
2008 Virtual worlds for social skills learning
2008 Over-horizon laser-enabled comms
2008 Audio-visual additions to networked dreams (dream linking with shared experience)
2008 Augmented reality santa and sleigh in xmas high streets, throwing digital presents
2008 Augmented reality enhanced xmas decorations
2008 Gift wrap using electronic paper, LEDs, optical fibres, displays
2008 Greeting cards that play full pop videos
2008 Xmas crackers linked to home cinema systems
2008 Domestic telescopes with digital networked zoom (right up to Hubble resolution)
2008 Terrestrial networked telescopes/cameras that see through or remove buildings
2008 Cameras with networked zoom or alternative weather
2008 Multimedia cocktails – RFID link to table, aerial, aura, networking
2008 Cocktail glasses with vibrating rims to generate special ripple patterns
2008 Spicy foods linked to force feedback or haptic/vibrating suits
2008 Machine-enabled wisdom
2008 Solar wind deflector weapon – ionospheric cascade gun
2008 Espionage devices in gift vouchers
2008 Electronic circuits printed into documents as security
2008 Glasses using light-emitting polymers for frames
2008 Glasses that change colour according to emotional state of wearer
2008 Glasses with thread-mounted lenses
2008 Glasses with bifocal lenses with two magnetic hold points
2009 Terraforming using self-organising smart bacteria
2009 Climate control using smart bacteria
2009 ORAC (different one) general quantum computer
2009 Augmented reality minarets and virtual burqas
2009 Cake glue (edible glue to hold together parts of broken cake)
2009 Mechanism for likely evolution of zombies
2010 Contact lenses with polymer display circumference powered by glasses frames
2010 Smart dust office spy
2010 Dual democracy
2010 Dual vote
2010 Bedlinen with microtubules for aromas
2010 Fabrics with variable thermal properties
2010 Fabrics that change shape, colour and texture linked to multimedia
2010 Vibrating fabrics
2010 Variable firmness mattress
2010 Pillows linked to network to chat to remote partner
2010 Pillows that monitor electrical activity from skin
2010 Sleep-ware that monitors health via skin contact, optical transmission and electrical activity
2010 Smart electric blanket
2010 Chemical tagging for antibiotics to police taking of full course
2010 Age changing electronic mirrors
2010 Sleep cycle alarm clocks
2010 Dream detection alarm clocks
2010 Multimedia dream enhancement
2010 Controlled dreaming
2010 Dream games
2010 Dream recording and replay
2010 fabrics with woven optical fibres for IR transmission massage
2010 Porn star avatar library for VR sex
2010 AR décor for hotel rooms
2010 Multimedia foods with integrated games in school canteens
2011 Space Anchor
2011 Superhero suits for kids, adding strength and sensory capability
2011 Simulated x-ray vision for kids’ games
2011 Gesture-based superpowers, e.g. fierce gaze causes (pretend) death ray
2011 Kids’ badges acting as social networking devices, e.g ego badge
2011 Clothes for kids that flash on and off
2011 Kaleidoscopic makeup and body paint for kids
2011 Smart face-paints for kids
2011 Visors to simulate animal vision (e.g. bumblebee view of a flower)
2011 Magic wand for kids that works in AR
2011 Cat basket electric blanket
2011 Ultrasonic washing ball, washing machine
2011 Leak-proof shampoo bottle tops
2011 Electronic compasses in paper maps
2011 Slow-motion adverts designed to look right at fast forward speeds
2011 Optical fibre hair extensions
2011 Cellular automata electronic jewellery + other self-organisation mechanisms
2011 Heisenberg Computer
2011 AI-based tweeting bypassing court injunctions
2011 Food packaging chips with proximity alerts to warn of possible cross-contamination
2011 Virtual genders, hybrid genders, bridge genders
2011 Full sensory transgender play via neural connections from strapons
2011 Blog T-shirts
2011 Ambient intelligence display shirts
2011 Club-wear linked to atmosphere controls and music
2011 Group networked clothing
2011 Media-coupled clothes
2012 Handshake + voice as payments mechanism
2012 Social ritual-based security
2012 Use of electronic jewellery - signet rings, bracelets, active skin with handshake or point and pay
2012 3D-printed tokens for local exchange trading systems
2012 Wind energy harvester using sails of plastic capacitor vanes
2012 Digital fluids
2012 Virus-based photodiode introduction to brain cells for direct brain link
2012 Virus-based introduction of photodiodes into brain cells for brain mapping and replication
2012 Electronic Immortality using virus-based photodiode introduction
2012 Gym equipment with thought and emotion detection to check athlete is ‘giving it their all’
2012 Point of Sale personal tax gateway
2012 Citizen wage
2012 Banknotes used for espionage
2012 Plastic credit cards with e-ink panels for vouchers and navigation
2012 Plastic credit cards with touch sensitive displays
2012 Augmented reality use in payments –using virtual objects and gestures
2012 Knowledge tax, culture tax
2012 Welfare and community care costs paid by social tax based on connectedness
2012 Terrorism link to marketing
2012 Flaw in economist definition of economic growth due to ongoing cost reduction
2012 Care economy economics
2012 Immortality for under 35s, 3Bn people
2012 Male and female websites
2012 Stroking, affirmation and encouragement site
2012 Augmented reality objectification of women
2012 Advertising-free IT
2012 Store-based virtual value add to encourage visits and discourage digital trespass
2012 3D printer based crafts resurgence
2012 3d printed figurines instead of photos, also for marketing use
2012 3D-printed miniatures as business cards
2012 3D printers internal printing, + using x-rays
2012 3D-printing circuits inside cancers for heating treatment
2012 3D-printed brain links
2012 3D-printed security devices with molecular signatures or tiny chips
2012 Security wax for personal seals that can’t be melted and reformed
2012 Boards making commercial companies into not-for-profit (high exec pay, low tax, low dividend)
2012 Fairy story futurology
2012 Kite telescopes
2012 Eagle eye contacts (larger lens + zoom)
2012 Credit card cameras
2012 Smart posters with video capture tracking faces and gaze focus
2012 See-through T-shirts (front display linked to rear camera and vice versa)
2012 Internal IR cameras in microwaves to see hot and cold spots
2012 200km tall Lunar elevator base
2012 Graphene wood using fine tubular woven graphene/carbon nanotube columns
2012 Graphene wood using graphene foam filler
2012 30km high spaceport
2012 Lighter-than-air building materials
2012 Box city, entire appearance in AR
2012 Corneal implants at birth for lifetime AR
2012 Personality change clinics
2012 Reprogramming wars with onion personality layering
2012 Cyberspace time travel
2012 Casual displays
2012 Friend/celebrity cards linked to Facebook etc.
2012 Universal tax
2012 Use of direct brain link with new/multiple bodies
2012 Use of direct brain link for gender hopping
2012 Multi-layer smart armour for emergency services
2012 Remote controlled exoskeleton for emergency services (to walk them back from danger)
2012 Buoyancy suits for obese people
2012 Exoskeletons for obese people
2012 Fatolympics
2013 Political twitter equivalent
2013 Football collector cards linked to social media and player’s eye view during game
2013 Electronic football banners, hats, flags etc
2013 Augmented reality crowds, virtual players or pretending you’re at Wembley
2013 Team or player specific apps for social coordination (e.g. exchanging chants) during games
2013 Insect sized drones following players
2013 Vibrating seating for fans to improve atmosphere
2013 Android players controlled by online teams
2013 Insect robots carrying LED lighting and cameras
2013 Video visors allow zoom to see player faces and play detail
2013 Full sensory recording for later use in immersive games
2013 Pitch-embedded cameras that withdraw as player approaches
2013 Player kit monitoring bio-signs to police fitness or effort
2013 Player-wearable displays to assist in learning strategy during training
2013 Players wear active skin to record sensations for fans and gaming
2013 Pitch sensors to monitor firmness/wetness, wear etc
2013 Player video tattoos that show warnings (e.g yellow card)
2013 Augmented reality directions to nearest toilets/refreshment stands during breaks
2013 Steerable footballs
2013 Hover boards using linear induction lane
2013 Hover boards using reactive magnetic coils
2013 Magnetic surface on skateboard parks
2013 Hover boards using plasma hovercraft principle
2013 Star Wars Landspeeder mechanism
2013 Electronic pipe plasma generation
2013 Force field plasma ply mechanism
2013 Plasma as a building material mechanism
2013 Flexible display replacement for DVDs and CDs
2013 Flexible display CD replacement showing music videos
2013 AI marriage
2013 Bubblewrap terrorism – using bubbles to carry chemicals and bursting by twisting to mix
2013 Bubblewrap terrorism using briefcase of body wrap
2013 Bubblewrap biological weapon
2013 Gender equality solution – formal recognition of everyone’s male and female side
2013 Circular model for politics
2013 3D micro-injection moulding
2013 Pick and place 3D printing hybrids
2013 Magnetic graphene muscles using coils in folded structures
2013 Graphene foam helium substitute
2013 High altitude graphene balloons
2013 Permanent high altitude solid balloons over city as satellite substitute
2013 Floating building structures or islands using graphene foam
2013 Carbon foam balloons for rescue missions from tall buildings
2013 Solid airships
2013 Graphene filament 3D printer
2013 Graphene fur
2013 Biomimetic fur follicle distribution
2013 Graphene drinking straw for emergency clean water supply
2013 Graphene still
2013 Helmet of Truth using TMS phase arrays to stimulate memory activation and recognition
2013 Graphene-based video makeup using graphene flake suspension
2013 Furry spaceship with shedding fur to collect and eject space debris
2013 Building extrusion using high pressure 3D printers so buildings grow like grass
2013 600km tall building (top well above Hubble Telescope)
2013 Space launch line between tall building and Space Elevator
2013 Cubic carbon (new allotrope using all 6 electrons to bond)
2013 Carbon chain mail (new allotrope)
2013 Assorted carbon tape weapons – darts, disks, rapiers etc
2013 Carbon Katana
2013 Self-organising distributed explosives
2013 Self-organising terrorist drones and components
2013 Consciousness as modified detection with symmetrical fractal feedback loop
2013 Design of self-reinforcing evolutionary design system for machine consciousness
2013 Inter-car mobile signal relay
2013 Light-emitting paints for racing car advertising
2013 Shape changing car aerofoils and other aerodynamic surfaces
2013 Variable grip tyres
2013 Plasma thrusters for race cars
2013 Driver controlling several vehicles
2013 Energy recovery shared between team members
2013 Cars with supercapacitors recharged during race by surface pads
2013 Variable grip fashion or emergency services materials
2013 Graphene flakes for wet-grip tyres and sensor platforms
2013 Augmented reality makes each race car look different for each viewer
2013 Race cars driven by gamer teams
2013 Northern plasma cannon defence system
2013 Replay mechanism for experience and memory recall in machine consciousness
2013 Sensory echoes & neural interference for knowledge and concepts in machine consciousness
2013 Conscious computer design
2013 Wet string broadband April Fool
2013 Magic fingers and digital spells using location, direction and gesture detection
2013 Accelerometer use in spell casting
2013 Use of rings to detect hand shapes and gestures
2013 Use of digital spells, point and pay or grand gestures as payment mechanism
2013 Digital spell equivalence to make any surface touch sensitive
2013 Networked AI-assisted toys allowing kid to be ‘smarter than Dad’ (partially from 1998)
2013 Variable assistance navigation to teach orienteering
2013 Autistic-compatible networked toys to assist in social skills development
2013 Tribal AR uniforms
2013 Kid black box 24/7 monitor to prevent bullying
2013 Full monitoring of gestures etc using accelerometers, skin measurements…
2013 Anti-rape black box with police-only access to records to prevent misuse
2013 Digital instrument 3D sound casting to personally immerse listener
2013 Gesture recognition to emotionally enhance musical instrument interface
2013 Playlists using automated detection of emotional state
2013 3D printed Gauss rifle jig
2013 3D printed stored energy devices
2013 Electronic inks used in printers, data written during print
2013 Digital ‘wax seal’ using digital imprint from digital signet ring
2013 Single letter MBA
2013 Free floating combat drone mechanism
2013 Use of carbon foam as main construction material for maximum buoyancy
2013 Steerable electron pipes to create directed airflow
2013 Force field use for component suspension
2013 Dynamic self-organisation using relative location to maintain or recover shape
2013 Dynamic structures with wandering components using above
2013 Orb components using holographic projection from moving plates
2013 Drone use of lasers or shock weapons with graphene super-caps as energy store
2013 Drone swarms with cloud-based intelligence
2013 Drone swarm logistics for energy or component supply and sharing
2013 Redundant parts mist
2013 Use of free-space optics for inter-drone non-disruptable comms
2013 Midge-sized combat drones for invulnerable enemy
2013 Sheet graphene production using packed electron pipe array
2013 Phoenix business strategy
2013 Packetized electricity for peer to peer markets of priority use allocation
2013 Plasma ply disks as the new glass
2013 Biotech infinite style floating city areas - mechanism
2013 Kasimir Comb
2013 Heisenberg Resonator
2013 The Extractor to harness wind energy from tornados and hurricanes
2013 Personalised variable detail in films
2013 Reverse product placement
2013 User-specific product placement
2013 Holiday via remote presence in android
2013 Holiday via remote presence using other people’s go-pros
2013 Ubiquitous surveillance via microbots and microdrones
2013 Dating via remote presence in android
2014 Waffles to stop soil erosion
2014 Justice via switching consciousness off
2014 Carbon footprint limitation by limiting periods of consciousness
2014 Hurricane energy deflector weapon
2014 Environmental monitoring via Aardvarks
2014 Errones
2014 Interfacial prejudice
2014 Smart fuse IoT implementation
2014 Interconnectedness security problem
2014 Compliment inequality
2014 Digital eyebrows
2014 Assorted fashion uses of cheap/flexible displays
2014 Death by switching off
2014 Fairies and other miniatures as future humans and space travellers
2014 Avatar style connection to fairies
2014 Thistle seed drones
2014 Real cyberspace based time travel to the future or past
2014 Cyberspace time rift
2014 Railgun water pistol
2014 Rapid fire water rail gun sniper rifle
2014 Pull shopping virtual stores
2014 Community-owned cultural value assignment to property
2014 Internet of virtual things
2014 Virtual wearables
2014 Rape ‘black box’ + implanted version
2014 Drone or balloon based high speed banking network
2014 Planetary exploration using clouds of tiny devices wandering on spider-like threads
2014 Planetary exploration using balloons, kites, bubbles
2014 Achieving ground penetration for exploration probes by floating up and dropping
2014 Textured pixels for high res TV, textured HDR
2014 Range of X-men capability mechanisms, e.g transforming by touch, plastic skin
2014 Stringed instruments using accelerometers on the strings instead of conventional pickups
2014 Jet fusion concept using continuous feed through Archimedes screw of lasers
2014 Graphene bubbles floating everywhere
2014 Graphene balloon advert platforms
2014 Cyberspace sensors to monitor digital trespass
2014 Physical doors as cyberspace portals
2014 Plasma caterpillar tracks
2014 Ground-up data as basis of consciousness and smart environment
2014 ‘True’ empty space
2014 Scaled vote system
2014 Alcohol-free beer goggles
2014 Karma system
2014 Laser spirit level with marked line
2014 Predator drones (hunting/killing smaller ones)
2014 Forehead mist 3D projector (smart Bindi)
2014 Stimulative technology
2014 Nanospikes used with acoustic waves to destroy bacteria on surfaces
2014 Water-cooled fabrics using microtubules
2014 Linear induction mats for wheelchair slope assistance
2014 UB sterilisation in hospital elevators while empty
2015 Ultrasonic washing ball using steered phased arrays
2015 Wandering washing ball using shape change, swim bladder, paddles or cilia
2015 Suspended animation or mind transfer as suicide alternative
2015 Bathtub voting, mechanism
2015 Virtual business centres
2015 Beetle capture and control system
2015 Beetle-based espionage/terrorism
2015 Hollow fibre moth deterrent
2015 Personal drone swarms
2015 3D selfie lifelogging
2015 Feminist AR fashion
2015 Electronic glitter smart makeup platform
2015 Washing machine than sanitises, virus checks and updates IoT chips in clothing and wearables
2015 UV emitter in with wash to sterilise clothes
2015 Activated dyes that stick only to certain parts of clothes
2015 Location-based activation of electronic scents using inbuilt electronics
2015 Scents for pet blankets
2015 Tunable scents using rupturable capsules
2015 Social scents, context dependent emission
2015 Tribal scents
2015 Car electronics substituted by passenger IT
2015 Fully driverless ultra-cheap pod based transport system with wheels
2015 Ultra-cheap pod based transport system levitated by surface
2015 Pod-based delivery system
2015 Cellular electric grid design for electric vehicles
2015 Ultrasound scan bodysuit
2015 New states of matter with novel electron sharing – triangular, tetrahedral, linear, planar
2015 Star Wars Light Sabres
2015 Light sabre toast function
2015 Light sabre safety switch
2015 Light sabre link to The Force
2015 Spiderman style silk thrower
2015 Ultrafine graphene yarns for nylon substitute
2015 Ladder-free hosiery, ultra-strong and 0.1 denier
2015 Adaptive hosiery with electronically controlled magnetic muscles for variable compression
2015 Adaptive hosiery with LEDs for changeable patterns and computer displays
2015 Adaptive hosiery for energy harvesting, radio energy harvesting
2015 Projected graphene rail gun
2015 Glasses with slider to lower or raise lenses for variable focus or zoom
2015 Gender as an imaginary quantity e.g. (xM + iyF) or wA + xB +iyB +izAB
2015 VR use with active skin patches on robots to relay sensations to 3rd party
2015 AI/Robot direct interaction with active skin to deliver extra functions and sensations
2015 Mannequinisation/robotisation of people using e-chains or switch-off utility
2015 3D printer digger or exoskeleton attachment for building fine detailing
2015 Part prefab, part site finished building components
2015 Digger cutting attachments with shape changing edge
2015 Digger attachments with geophysical sensors built in
2015 Cheaper buildings using AR instead of windows, including projection systems
2015 Directed radiant heating and smart lighting following occupants
2015 Path-specific electric bikes as theft deterrent, also homing function
2015 Cranes acting as central shaft for climber bots and EM lifts
2015 Drones with custom nozzle attachments for fine detailing and painting at height
2015 Buildings with anti-drone defences such as lasers or fine-mesh nets
2015 Large buildings with quarantining capability
2015 Augmented reality used to show builders ‘finished view’ of what they are building
2015 Building seeds that act as coordination and triangulation point for automated build
2015 Executive assistant AR
2015 Bathroom mirror used for automated treatment and cosmetics recommendations
2015 Bathroom mirror used for GP link
2015 Bathroom mirror with time delay ‘reflection’
2015 Assorted smart cosmetics (details commercial confidential)
2015 Lavatories with UV lights for sterilisation
2015 Bathroom UV with occupant detection safeguard
2015 Bath mats with embedded sensors for health monitoring
2015 Towels with electronic massage function via shape-change polymer threads
2015 Bathroom fabrics with IR therapy via optical fibres
2015 Full bathroom air-con, inc laser zapping, pollen filters, ionisation, odour removal
2015 Graphene filters for grey water recycling and reuse
2015 Gym equipment linked to activities in computer games
2015 Augmented reality used to compete against virtual characters, distant friends or celeb athletes
2015 Augmented reality allows virtual objects to be sued in play
2015 Drone substitute for balls in sports, e.g. golden snitch
2015 Digital jewellery stores personal data, payments and profiles for gym equipment
2015 Solid balloon printers as escape mechanism for tall buildings

Appendix: Active Skin Inventions, all 2001
A multilevel device architecture with some of the layers in or on the body, working in conjunction.
Smart tattoos layer
Sub-surface imprints that monitor various body state parameters, such as chemical, electrical, temperature, and signal this information to higher layer devices.
Permanently imprinted ID circuitry or patterns
Permanently imprinted display components
Permanently imprinted circuitry to link to nerves
Imprinted devices that use chemical energy from the body to power external devices, e.g. ATP
Display capability leading to static or multimedia display instead of static ink
Use for multimedia body adornment, context dependent tattoos, tribalism
monitor body chemicals for clues to emotional, hormonal or health state
Measurement of blood composition to assist in drug dosing
monitor nerve signals
tattoos that show body’s medical state or other parameters
health monitor displays, e.g. blood insulin level, warning displays, instructions and recommendations on what actions to take
show emotional state, emoticons shown according to biochemical or electrical cues
may convert information on body’s state into other stimuli, such as heat or vibration
may do same from external stimuli
devices in different people could be linked in this way, forming emotilinks. Groups of people could be linked. People belonging to several such groups might have different signalling or position for each group.
Identification, non-erasable, much less invasive than having an implant for the same purpose so would not have the same public objection. This could be electronic, or as simple as ultraviolet ink in a machine readable form such as barcode, snowflake etc
Power supply for external devices using body’s energy supply, e.g. ATP
Metallic ear implants on ear drum as hearing aid – electrostatic or magnetically driven
Electronic signet ring, electronics that will only function when held by the rightful user
Electronic signature devices
Mid-term layer
semi-permanent self organising displays for applications such as smart nail varnish and smart cosmetics
context sensitive cosmetics, reacting to time, location, person, emotions, temperature
electrically sensitive chemicals that interact with imprinted electronic circuits
semi-permanent underlay for smart overlays to assist self-organisation
smart sunscreens with sensors and electro-active filters
colour sensitive or exposure sensitive sun-blocks
cosmetics with actuators in suspension controlled by embedded electronics
Active jewellery, active Bindies etc , e.g. Led optical control linked to thought recognition system
Smart perfumes that respond to context, temperature, location etc
Similar technology to tattoo layer but higher in skin so therefore degradable over time
Soluble or body-degradable circuitry
photodegradable circuitry
transparent circuitry using transparent conducting polymers
inconspicuous positioning systems
devices that transfer body material such as DNA or body fluids to external devices
imprinted data storage devices with I/O, or permanent dumb storage
imprinted sensors and recorders for radiation, magnetic fields, electrical or mechanical variation
imprinted signalling devices for communication between body devices and external world
smart monitoring and alarm technology that integrates body or surface events or position to external behaviours such as control systems, or surveillance systems
synthetic sense systems based on synthetic sensing and translation to biological sense and possibly direct nerve stimuli
smart teeth with sampling and analysis functions with signalling and storage capability
imprinted actuators using piezoelectric, memory metal or ‘muscle wire’ technology, interacting with external monitoring to use as interface or feedback devices
infection monitor and control devices
devices that make electrical or magnetic stimuli to assist wound healing or control pain
semi-permanent tags for visitors, contractors, criminals and babies, location and context dependent
medical tags that directly interact with hospital equipment to control errors, hold medical records etc
links to nervous system by connecting to nerves in the skin and to outside by radio
Access technology – temporary access to buildings or theme parks. Rather than a simple stamp, people could have a smarter ID device printed into their skin
The device could monitor where the wearer goes and for how long
It could interact with monitoring equipment in buildings or equipment
The device might include the use of invisible active inks on smart membrane
Components could be made soluble to wash off easily, or more permanent
Components could be photodegradable
Could use ultraviolet inks that may be read by either external devices or other components
Like smart tattoo ID systems, they could use snowflakes, colour snowflakes, barcodes or ‘digital paper’, to give a ‘digital skin’ functionality
This could interact with ‘digital air’ devices
Could be used to co-ordinate external device positioning accurately for medical reasons, e.g. acupuncture, TENS etc.
Ultra-smart finger prints, wide range of functions based on interaction with computers and external devices, other smart skin systems, or digital paper
Outputs DNA or DNA code to external reader for ID or medical reasons
Combine with smart tags to achieve complex management and control systems, e.g. in package handling, product assembly
SOS talismans, full health record built into body, including blood groups, tissue groups etc
Degradable radiation monitors that can be positioned at key body points for more accurate dose measurement
Could signal between such devices to a central display via the skin
Devices might communicate using ad-hoc networks, could be used as a distributed antenna for external communication
Thermometers & alarms. Use to measure heat for alarms for old people with degraded senses
Directly interact with smart showers to prevent scalding
Could monitor peoples behaviour for behaviour based alarms, e.g. fall alarms
Overlay synthetic nervous system, use for medical prostheses, bionics or external interfacing
Synthesised senses, making us sensitive to stimuli outside our biological capability
Smart teeth, checks food for presence of bacteria or toxins
Monitor breath for bad odours or illness
Diabetic supervision, monitor ketones
Monitor diet and link to smart devices in the home or hospital to police diet
Modify taste by directly stimulating nerves in the tongue? Probably not feasible
Calorie counting
Smile enhancement, using light emission or fluorescence
Smile training, e.g. tactile feedback on mouth position after operation
Operation scar monitoring, patch across wound could monitor structural integrity,
infection monitor based on detecting presence of harmful bacteria, or characteristics of surrounding skin affected by infection
semi-permanent nail varnish with variable colour
context sensitive nail varnish
multimedia nail varnish
Baby tagging for security purposes & wide range of medical applications such as breathing monitoring, temperature, movement etc
Operation tagging to prevent mistakes, direct interaction with electronic equipment in theatre
ITU applications
Active alarms, integrated into external devices, directly initiate action
Position based sensors and alarms
Personality badge
Transfer layer
Smart fingerprints encompass range of ID, pressure detection, interfacing and powering devices
Use of vibrating membranes as signalling, e.g. ring tone, alarms, synthetic senses etc, allows personal signalling. Possible use for insect repellent if ultrasonic vibration
Use of ultrasound to communicate with outside or to constantly monitor foetus
Use of touch or proximity sensitive membranes to allow typing or drawing on body surface, use of skin as part of input device, may use in conjunction with smart fingerprints for keypad-free dialling etc
Palm of hand can be used as computer in conjunction with smart fingerprints
Use of strain gauges in smart skin allows force measurement for interfaces, force feedback, policing child abuse etc
Actuators built into membrane, allows program interface and force feedback systems, drug dosing, skin tensioning etc, use for training and games, sports, immersive environments etc.
Use of combinations of such devices that measure distance between them, allowing training and monitoring functions
Transfer on eye allows retinal display, ultraviolet vision, eye tracking, visual interface
Transfer based phones and computers
Electronic jewellery
Direct link between body and avatars based on variety of sensors around body and force feedback devices, connection to nervous system via midterm layer devices
Thermal membranes that change conductivity on demand to control heating or cooling, also use as alarm and signalling
Electronic muscles based on contracting gels, muscle wires etc, used as temporary training devices for people in recovery or physiotherapy, or for sports training
Electronic stimulation devices allowing electro-acupuncture, electrolysis, itching control etc
Printed aerials worn on body
Permanent EEG patches for use in thought recognition and control systems
Emotionally sensitive electronics, for badges, displays, context sensitivity etc
Olfactory sensors for environmental monitoring linked to tongue to enhance sense of smell or taste, or for warning purposes. Olfactory data could be recorded as part of experience for memory assistance later
Power supplies using induction
Frequency translation in ear patch to allow supersonic hearing
Devices for pets to assist in training and health monitoring, control nerves directly, police virtual electric fences for cats
Fingertip mouse and 3d interface
E-cash on the skin, use simply by touching a terminal
Tactile interfaces – vibration membranes that convey texture or simple vibration
Tactile stimuli as a means for alarms, coupled with heat, cold, or radiation sensors
Text to Braille translation without need for external devices, using actuators in fingertip pads
Use for navigation based on external magnetic field measurement, GPS or other positioning systems, translated into sensory stimuli
Measurement and possible recording of force
use to police child abuse, or other handling in the workplace as safety precautions. Could link to alarms
motion detection, using kinetic or magnetic detection for use in sports or medical systems
actuators built into transfers could give force feedback.
Could directly link to nerve stimulation via lower layers to accomplish full neural feedback
combine sensor and actuators to directly control avatars in cyberspace and for computer interfacing feedback
interfaces for games
short duration software licenses for evaluation purposes, needs fragile transfer so limits use to single user for lifetime of transfer
sensors on eyes allow eye tracking
direct retinal display, active contact lens replacement
UV phosphors allow ultraviolet vision
Actuators or tensioning devices could control wrinkles
could assist in training for sports
training for typing, playing music, music composition, virtual instruments
keypad-free dialling
air typing, drawing, sculpting
type on arm using finger and arm patches
finger snap control
active sign languages
‘palm pilot’, computer on hand
digital computer, count on fingers
generic 3D interface
use with transfer phone
education use to explore surfaces of virtual objects in virtual environments
use for teletravel navigation, or use in dangerous environments for controlling robotics
direct nervous system links
could assist in body language in conjunction with emotion sensors for socially disadvantaged people
could act as signalling device in place of phone ring or audible alarms (actuator is not necessarily piezoelectric vibrator)
doorbell on skin, personal doorbell, only alerts person of relevance
active sunscreen using electrical stimuli to change sun-block cream to block UV when UV dose is reached
could electrically alter heat radiation properties to enhance heating or cooling of body
membranes with smart holes allow just the right amount of drug delivery in conjunction with smart tattoos. May use lower layers to accurately position and record dosing data
Could use heat, cold, vibration as signals between people
Electronic muscles – use polymer gel or memory metal or contracting wires
Ultrasonic communication between devices and outside world
Teledildonic applications
Oscillating magnetic patches for medical reasons
Applies voltage across wound to assist healing
Smart Nicotine or antibiotic patches
Painkilling patches using pain measurement (nerve activity) and directly controlling using electric stimuli, or administering drugs
Placebo device patches
Multimedia cosmetics
Smart cosmetics, with actuators, smart tattoos that are removable
Self organising cosmetic circuits, sensor, smart chemicals and actuator matrices
Continuous electrolysis as hair growth limiter
Electro-acupuncture with accurate positioning
Control of itching to allow more rapid recovery
Baby-care anti-scratch patches
Printed aerials on body for device communication
Detect, record, process and transmit nerve signals
EEG use
Thought control of devices
Invisible scalp sensors for thought collection
Emotion badge
Truth badge, using body cues to convey whether lying or not. Could be unknown to wearer, transmitting by radio or ultrasound or in UV
Context sensitive perfumes, emotionally sensitive perfumes
Inverse heat sensitive perfumes, prevent too much being given off when warm
Smell sensitive deodorant, or temperature dependent
Context sensitive makeup, that behaves differently with different people at different situations or times
Colour sensitive sun-block, protects more on fairer skin
Active Bindies (dots on Indian women foreheads)
Active jewellery
Power generation for wearable electrical devices, using body heat, solar power, kinetics or skin contraction
Frequency translation to allow hearing out of normal audible spectrum
Bugs – unspecified functions in devices
Mosquito killers, zapping insects with charge, or deterring with ultrasound or electrical signals
Automatic antiseptic injections
Use on animals for medical and pest control purposes
Pet signalling and training
Pet homing
Pet ID systems
Jam nerves
Muscle toning
Image capture, compound eyes, raster scan with micro-mirror and transverse lens
Phones, watches, diaries etc
Chameleon, cuttlefish pattern novelties
Orifice monitoring
Transfer body suit, self-organising polymer coating. Use for sports etc.
Position-based devices
Morse code devices for children’s communications
Movement to voice translation – guidance for blind people or use for everyday navigation, sports feedback
Strain alarms
Use with smart drugs
Smell as ring tone
Smell as alarm
Smell for emotion conveyance
Snap fingers to switch lights on
Tactile interfaces
Emotional audio-video capture
record on body condition
wires on skin as addition to MIT bodynet
tension control devices to assist wound healing
avatar mimicry, electronically control ones appearance
electronic paint-by numbers
means to charge up other devices by linking to external electrical device or by induction
devices that can read ultraviolet ink on sub layer
finger mouse, using fingertip sensors instead of mouse, can be used in 3D with appropriate technology base
Use of combinations of patches to monitor relative movements of body parts for use in training and medical treatments. Could communicate using infrared, radio or ultrasound
Use of an all-over skin that acts as a protective film so that each device doesn’t have to be dermatologically tested. Unlikely to be full body but could cover some key areas. E.g. some people are allergic to Elastoplast, so could have their more vulnerable areas covered.
Strain gauges on stomach warning of overeating
Strain gauge based posture alarms on the neck, back and shoulders etc
Breathalysers in smart teeth alert drivers to being over the limit and interact directly with car immobilisers
Pedometers and weight sensors built into feet to monitor exercise etc
Battlefield management systems using above systems with remote management

Removable layer
Smart elastoplasts
Smart contact lenses with cameras and video
Smart suits with sensors and actuators for sports and work
Almost all conventional personal electronic devices
Web server
Web sites
Allowing variable hole membranes for drug dosing. Body properties used with ID patch to control drug dose via smart membrane. May communicate with hospital. Off the shelf drug containers can then be used
Control of pain by linking measurement of nerve activity and emotional cues to dispensing device

Key active skin inventions
Sub-skin-surface imprints and implants

Sub-skin-surface imprints and implants that monitor various body state parameters, such as chemical, electrical, temperature, and signal this information to higher layer devices.

Circuitry is imprinted into the skin using ink-jet technology or high pressure diffusion. e.g. a hand may be inserted into a print chamber, or a print device may be held in contact with the required area.
Passive components such as ink patterns may be imprinted, which may function as part of a system such as a positioning system
Other small encapsulated components such as skin capsules* may be injected using high pressure air bursts.
Some of the circuit components assembled in situ may require high temperatures for a short time, but this would cause only momentary pain.
Deeper implants may be injected directly into the required position using needles or intravenous injection, allowing later transport to the required location in the blood flow.
The implants may anchor themselves in position by mechanical or magnetic means, their positioning determined in co-operation with higher layer devices.

Components may be imprinted higher in the skin to be capable or wearing away, or lower in the skin to ensure relative permanence, or to give greater contact with the body
Circuitry may be designed to be transparent to visible light by using transparent polymers, but may be visible under UV or infrared
Patterns implanted may be used as part of an external system. An ink-based pattern could be used as an identifier, for holding data, or as a means of positioning. They may be used as part of a, which would effectively be enhanced biometric security system.
Other identifiers may be permanently imprinted, which may be active or passive such as inductive loops, bar-codes, digital paper, snowflakes etc. Intra-skin power supplies* may be used to power more sophisticated tags that can be imprinted or injected

Circuitry or patterns may be harmlessly biodegradable so that it would vanish over time, or may be permanent.
they may be made photo-degradable so that it breaks down under external light of appropriate intensity and frequency, e.g. UV
Inks may be used that are rewritable, e.g. they change their colour when exposed to UV or a magnetic field, so data may be modified, and these devices are therefore dynamic data storage devices. They need not operate in the visible spectrum, since external sensors are not limited by human characteristics.
Baby tags may be inserted to prevent babies from being abducted

Skin conduits

Devices may be implanted that are able to act as a conduit to lower skin layers.

This may facilitate drug delivery, monitoring or nerve connection.
Probes of various types may be inserted through the conduits for a variety of medical or interface reasons.
Even body fluids and DNA samples may be extracted via these conduits.
This may provide a means of blood transfer for transfusion or blood cleaning, and a replacement for drips
Conduits would be sealed to prevent bacterial or viral entry except when actively in use.
The conduits can be implemented in several ways: tubes may be implanted that have muscle wires arranged so that when they contract the holes flatten and thus close; the walls of the tube may be comprised of magnetic materials so can be closed magnetically; the default position may be closed and magnetic repulsion is used to stretch the holes open; similarly, muscle wire may be used to open the holes by rounding a previously flattened hole; the open or closed states can be provided by elongating or shortening a tube; heat may be used to cause expansion or contraction; synthesised muscle tissue may be used to stretch the area and make holes open; shape change and memory metals or plastics may be used. Other techniques may be possible.

Implanted or imprinted links to nerves

Permanently imprinted circuitry to link to nerves would comprise electrical connections to nerves nearby, by means of conducting wires between nerves and the devices.
The devices meanwhile would be in communication with the higher layers.
They would signal impulses to higher layers and capable of producing impulses in various patterns into the nerves.
The connections would be made using specialised skin capsules* or directly injected wires.
These devices would encapsulate very thin wires that propagate out from the device on request until they make electrical contact with a suitable nerve. They may be wound in a spiral pattern inside the capsules and unwound to form radiating wires.
These wires may be made of metal today or carbon fullerene ‘buckytubes’ in due course
They may be connected by wire, radio or optical links to the external world
Being able to stimulate nerves directly implies that body movement could be directly controlled by an external system
It would be possible to implant control devices in people or animals in order to remotely control them
Although primarily a military technology, this would enable pets to be sent on a predetermined walk, to prevent children from stepping out in front of a car, to prohibit many crimes that are detectable by electronic means and a wide range of other ethically dubious activities
Nerve stimulation can be linked extensively into other electronic systems
Email or other communications could include instructions that translate into nerve stimuli in the recipient. This may link to emotional stimulation too. A very rich form of intimate communication could thus be achieved.
It would be possible to send an orgasm by email!
Filters can easily prevent abuse of such a system, since the user would be able to block unauthorised nerve stimulation
For some purposes, this choice to block stimuli could be removed by a suitable authority or similar, for policing, military and control purposes

Sensory enhancement and translation technique

A range of sensors may be implanted that are sensitive to various forms of radiation, EM, magnetic fields, electrical fields, nuclear radiation or heat. These would form part of an augmented sensory system.

Conventional technology based radiation monitors worn on a detachable layer may monitor cumulative radiation dose, or record intensity over time.
Other conventional technology sensors may also be worn at the detachable layer, some my be imprinted or implanted.
They may be connected systemically with the nervous system using implanted or imprinted nerve links* to create nerve stimuli related to sensor activity.
An array of synthetic senses may thus be created that would facilitate operation in a range of environments and applications. A primary market would be for sexual use, where sexual stimulation can be produced remotely directly into the nervous system.
Nerve stimuli could be amplified to increase sensory sensitivity.
Alternatively, stimuli could be translated into vibration, heat, pain, other tactile stimulus, or audio that would be picked up by the body more easily than the original form.
Such sensory enhancement may be used to link stimuli in different people, or to link people with real or virtual objects.
When connected to deep implants in the brain, this could perhaps eventually be used to implement crude telepathic communication via a network.
Remote control of robotics or other external machinery may be facilitated by means of linking sensory stimuli directly to machine operations or sensors. The communication would be via implanted or imprinted antennae.
Active teeth* may be used as part of such a system
Frequency shifters in the ear would permit hearing outside of normal human capability
Ditto visual spectrum
People would be able to interact fully with virtual objects using such virtual sensory stimulation

Alarm systems

Sensors in or on the skin may be used to initiate external alarms or to initiate corrective action. For example, an old person taking a shower may not realise the water temperature is too high, but the sensors could detect this and signal to the shower control system.
The most useful implementation of this would be one or more thermocouples or infrared sensors implanted in the skin at or near areas most likely to be exposed first to hot water such as hands or feet.
Thermal membranes that change conductivity according to temperature could be used as a transfer layer device.
Such membranes may form a part of an external alarm or control system of signal the body by other senses that a problem exists
As well as signalling to external systems, these sensors will use implanted or imprinted nerve links* to initiate direct local sensory stimulation by means of vibration* or pain enhancement, or produce audible warnings.
Alarms may also be triggered by the position of the person. A warning may be set up by interaction of the implant and external devices. A circuit in the skin can be detected by an external monitor, and warn that the person is moving into a particular area. This may be used to set off an alarm or alert either secretly or to the knowledge of the either only the person or only the external system. This can obviously be used to police criminals on parole in much the same way as existing tags, except that the technology would be less visible, and could potentially cause a sensation or even pain directly in the criminal. A virtual prison could be thus set up, with it being painful to leave the confines set by the authorities.
This would permit the creation of virtual electric fences for animal confinement
Sensors may measure force applied to the skin. This would enable policing of child care, preventing physical abuse for example. Alerts could be sent to authorities if the child is abused.

Skin based displays

Permanently imprinted display components may be developed that use the energy produced in this way to produce light or dark or even colours.
These may emit light but may be simply patches of colour beneath the skin surface, which would be clearly visible under normal lighting.
Small ink capsules that deform under pressure,
electrostatic or magnetic liquids, liquid crystals or light emitting or colour changing polymers would all be good candidates

Intra-skin power supply

Inductive loops and capacitors may be used to power active components that can be imprinted or injected. Inductive loops can pick up electromagnetic energy from an external transmitter that may be in the vicinity or even worn as a detachable device. Such energy can be stored in capacitors.
Detachable devices such as battery based power supplies may be worn that are electrically connected to devices at lower layers, either by thin wires or induction.
Optical power supply may be adequate and appropriate for some devices, and this again can be provided by a detachable supply via the skin, which is reasonable transparent across a wide frequency range
Devices that use chemical energy from the body to power external devices, e.g. ATP
Thermal energy may be obtained by using temperature difference between the body and the external environment. The temperature gradient within the skin itself may be insufficient for a thermocouple to produce enough voltage, so probes may be pushed further into body tissue to connect to tissue at the full body temperature. The probes would be thin wires inserted either directly through the surface, or by skin capsules*.
Mechanical energy may also be used, harnessing body movement using conventional kinetic power production such as used in digital watches. Devices on the feet may also be used, but may be less desirable than other conventional alternatives.
Thin batteries such as polymer batteries may be worn on the detachable layer
Solar cells may be worn on the detachable layer

Antennas and communicators in or on the skin

Some of the many devices in the layered active skin systems require communication with the outside world. Many of these require only very short distance communication, to a detachable device in contact with the skin, but others need to transmit some distance away from the body. Various implementations of communication device are possible for these purposes.
A vertical wire may be implemented by direct insertion into the skin, or it may be injected
It may be printed using conductive inks in a column through the skin
It may be simply inserted into a skin conduit
Skin capsules* may eject a length of wire
Wires from skin capsules may join together to make a larger aerial of variable architecture
This may be one, two or three dimensional
Skin capsules may co-operate and co-ordinate their wires so that they link together more easily in optimal designs
Self organising algorithms may be used to determine which of an array of skin capsules are used for this purpose.
Optical transmitters such as LEDs may be used to communicate in conjunction with photodiodes, CCDs or other optical signal detectors
Vibration may be used to communicate between devices
Ultrasonic transducers and detectors may be used
Printed aerials may be worn as transfers or detachable devices. They may be electrically connected to devices directly or via high frequency transmission across the skin, or by local radio to other smaller aerials.

Smart teeth & breast implants

Various sampling, analysis, monitoring, processing, storage, and communication facilities may be added to an artificial tooth that may be inserted in place of a crown, filling, or false tooth. Powering may be by piezoelectric means using normal chewing as a power source, or for some purposes, small batteries may be used.
Infection monitoring may be implemented by monitoring chemical composition locally.
Conventional olfactory sensing may be used
Breath may be monitored for chemical presence that may indicate a range of medical or hygiene conditions, including bad breath or diabetes
Data may be stored in the tooth that allows interaction with external devices and systems. This could be a discrete security component, or it may hold personal medical records or a personal profile for an external system.
Significant processing capability could be built into the volume of a tooth, so it could act as a processor for other personal electronics
Small cameras could be built into the tooth
Piezoelectric speakers could be used to make the tooth capable of audio-synthesis. This could allow some trivial novelty uses, but could later more usefully be used in conjunction with though recognition systems to allow people to talk who have lost their voice for medical reasons. Having the voice originate from the mouth would be a much more natural interface.
Some of these functions could be implemented in breast implants, especially data storage – mammary memory! Very significant processing capability could also be implanted easily in the volume of a breast implant. MP3 players that can be reprogrammed by radio such as bluetooth and communicate with headphones also via bluetooth. Power in batteries can be recharged using induction
*trademark the terms ‘mammary memory’, and ‘nipple nibbles’ (a nibble is half a byte, i.e. 4 bits)
breast implant electronics may be the heart of a body IT centre
taste and smell sensors in the tooth may be used as part of a sensory stimulation system whereby a sense of taste or smell could be synthetically recreated in someone who has lost this sense An active skin implant in the tongue, nose or a deeper implant in the appropriate brain region may be required to recreate the sense
this could be used to augment the range of taste or smell for normally sensed people in order to give them a wider experience or allow them to detect potentially dangerous gases or other agents, which may be physical or virtual
smart teeth may also make use of light emission to enhance a smile

Healing assistance devices and medical tags

Medical tags or semi-permanent tags* such as inductive loops can be imprinted that allow identification and store medical records. They may interact directly with equipment. This could be used for example to prevent operation errors. More sophisticated tags could be installed using skin conduits*
Active skin components may be used to apply an electric field across a wound, which has been shown to accelerate healing. These would be imprinted or implanted at a health centre during treatment. Voltage can be produced by external battery or power supply, by solar cells at the detachable layer, or by thermocouples that have probes at different body depths as described above.
Infection monitors can be implemented using chemical analysis of the area and by measuring the electrical properties and temperature of the region
The infection may be controlled by emission of electrical impulses and by secreting drugs or antibiotics into the area. This may be in conjunction with a detachable drug storage device, which can inject the drugs through skin conduits*.
Pain can be controlled to a point by means of electrical impulses that can be provided by the implants
The monitors may be in communication with a health centre.
Electrical impulses can be used to alleviate itching, and these could be produced by active skin components
Electronic acupuncture can be easily implemented using active skin, with implants at various acupuncture points precisely located by a skilled practitioner, and later stimulated according to a programmed routine
Electrolysis to prevent hair growth may be achieved by the same means

Semi-permanent tags

Semi-permanent tags or ID patterns may be implanted in upper skin layers to allow short term electronically facilitated access to buildings. The tags are not easily removable in the short term, but will vanish over a period of time depending on the depth of penetration. They may photo-degrade, biodegrade or simply wear away with the skin over time.
They may communicate electronically or optically with external systems
They may interact as part of alarm systems*
They may be aware of their position by means of detecting electronic signals such as GPS, wireless LANs
They may be used to give accurate positioning of devices on the skin surface or deeper, thus assisting automatic operations of medical equipment, in surgery, irradiation or drug dispensing
Babies can be secured against mistaken identification in hospital and their tags can interact with security systems to prevent their abduction. Proximity alerts could be activated when an unauthorised person approached them.

Self-organising circuits and displays

Self-organisation of circuits has been demonstrated and is known widely.
Active skin components with generic re-programmable circuitry may be installed and self-organisation used to configure the devices into useful circuits.
Components may be printed, injected or deposited via skin conduits* and may be contained in skin capsules*
Organisation can be facilitated or directed by external devices that provide position and orientation information as well as instructions to the embedded components
Combinations of display components may be linked by wires radiating out from each component to several other components, for instance by using skin capsules*. A self-organisation algorithm can be used to determine which connections are redundant and they can be withdrawn or severed. The remaining circuitry can be used as part of a control system to convert these individual display components into a co-ordinated display.
These display components may alternatively be painted onto skin, lip, eyelid or nail surfaces for example, to provide a multimedia display capability in place of conventional makeup and nail varnish. These displays would be less permanent than implanted circuitry
This body adornment could be more functional, with informative displays built in for some medical purpose perhaps. Text warnings and alerts could indicate problems.
Varnish would provide a high degree of protection for the components. Varnishes could also be fabricated to chemically assist in the self-organisation, by for example, providing a crystal matrix

Active Context-sensitive cosmetics and medicines

Cosmetics today are stand-alone combinations of chemicals, dies and aromatic agents. The addition of electronically active components either to the cosmetics themselves or into the underlying skin will permit them to be made intelligent
Cosmetics containing active skin components that interact with other layers and the outside world
Electrically sensitive chemicals would be useful components for such cosmetics. Many chemicals respond to electric fields and currents by changing their chemical bonding and hence optical properties. Some magnetic fluids are known that can be manipulated by magnetic fields. Active components may also be included that can change shape and hence their appearance, that are known in the field of digital ink.
Such chemicals may interact with underlying active skin circuits or components, and may respond to signals from external systems or active skin components or both
Cosmetics may use underlying active skin to facilitate precision location and some self-organisation
Active actuator components may be able to physically move cosmetics around on the skin surface
Characteristics of the appearance may depend on time of day, or location, or on the presence or properties of other environmental characteristics.
Sensors detecting UV may activate sunscreen components, releasing them from containers as required
Sensors detecting the presence of other cosmetics allow combination effects to be co-ordinated
Colours may change according to context, e.g. colour change lipstick and eye shadow
Kaleidoscopic or chameleon makeup, that changes colour in patterns regularly
Perfumes may be emitted according to context or temperature. This circumvents the problem where little perfume is given off when skin is cool, and much is lost outside in wind or when it is hot. Electronic control would allow more sophisticated evaporation for more consistent effect
Perfumes may be constructed with variable display properties that can be put on in variable quantities, with their precise effect controlled automatically by intelligence in the makeup or active skin
Make-up effects may be remotely controlled
Make-up may include light-emitting chemicals or electronics that are co-ordinated using active skin
Medicines may be administered on detection of allergenic agents such as pollen or chemicals
Active cosmetics may include actuators to contract the skin. The actuators would be based in small skin capsules* that would send thin wires into the skin to anchor themselves, and other wires to connect to other capsules
Intelligence in the cosmetics might be in constant or occasional communication with the manufacturer. This permits control of the effects by the manufacturer, and the capability to offer usage based licenses, making makeup into an ongoing service rather than a single product. This is implemented by adding active skin components that together communicate with nearby network connections
Cosmetics may adapt in appearance depending on the presence of signals. These signals may originate from other people’s active skin or from environmental systems. People wearing such cosmetics could thus look different to different people. Also, corporate styles could be implemented , controlled by building signalling systems.
Cosmetics may adjust automatically to ambient light conditions and local colours, allowing automated co-ordination with clothing and furnishing
Cosmetics may adjust their properties as part of an emotion detection and display system. This can be used to enhance emotional conveyance or to dampen emotional signals. They may also act as part of a psychological feedback loop that permits some emotional control

Digital mirror

A digital mirror, as described on my web site, has a combination of a camera and display that can show an image that may be the true image as the user, or a modified version of the user’s image. This disclosed concept is part of a wider non-disclosed system
Smart cosmetics may be used in conjunction with such a digital mirror
The cosmetic manufacturer or a service provider may use such a digital mirror to provide the customer with an enhanced view of themselves with various options, co-ordinating the application of smart make-up by means of ‘make-up by numbers’, and controlling its precise properties after application. Active skin components that are clinic installed could be used to provide the positioning systems and intelligence for the upper layers of removable cosmetics.
The customer would apply a quantity of makeup and then watch as various potential makeup effects are illustrated. On selection, that effect would be implemented, though several additional effects and contexts could be selected and assigned, and appropriate context effects implemented during the day. The effects could include the mechanical removal of wrinkles by means of actuators included in smart cosmetics*. Skin-based displays* may also form part of the overall effect.
Medicines may be applied in a similar way under control by a clinic.
Cosmetics may be controlled under license so that customers do not have unlimited freedom of appearance while wearing them. They may only be seen in a limited range of appearance combinations.

Active and emotional jewellery

Active Bindies, nose studs or other facial jewellery could be used as relatively deep implants to pick up reasonably good nerve signals from the brain as part of an EEG patch system*. These may be used to control apparatus via a signal recognition system.
Bindi would be top layer over active skin sub-layers and could contain much more complex chip than could be implanted in active skin
May contain battery and be used as power supply for sub-layers
Sub layers pick up clean signals from around scalp and send them to bindi for processing
Communication between devices may be radio or at high frequency via scalp
Infrared or ultrasound transmitter built into bindi relays the signals directly to external apparatus
Processing may recognise and process in-situ, transmitting control signals or data to external apparatus
Bindi may change appearance or include a display that reacts according to the signals detected
May act as emotion conveyance device
Signals from sensors in or on the skin can be used to pick up emotional cues, that are often manifested in changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, blood chemistry, skin resistivity and various muscular activity, some of which is subconsciously activated.
Collecting and analysing such data permits a range of electronics that responds to emotional activity. The active bind is just one piece of jewellery that may be useful in this regard, and is limited by culture.
Other forms of emotional jewellery may use displays or LEDs to indicate the wearer’s emotional state. Almost any form of jewellery could be used as part of this system, since active skin components that collect the data do not have to be in physical contact with the display devices
Active skin displays* may form part of this emotional display system
Active jewellery may also display data from other systems such as external computers or communication devices. This communication may be via active skin communication systems
Displays around the body may co-ordinate their overall effect via active skin devices
Emotions in groups of people may be linked together forming ‘emotilinks’ across the network, linking sensors, actuators, drug delivery systems and nerve stimulation together in emotion management systems. Drug delivery systems may instead dispense hormones
These systems may be linked into other electronic systems
Emotional messages may be sent that electronically trigger emotions in the recipient according to the intentions or emotions of the sender. Emotional email or voice messaging results. This enhances the capability and reach of communications dramatically.
Active jewellery such as a smart signet ring could be used as part of an authentication or security system, that may involve biometrics at any active skin layer as well as conventional electronic components and data that may also be housed in active skin

Active fingerprints

Active skin in the finger tip would greatly enhance interfacing to security systems and also to computer system interfaces, which can be made much more tactile
Smart fingerprints may include chips, passive ID, pressure indication, pressure transducers, vibration devices, interface and powering devices
Patterns and circuits built into the fingertips can link directly with external equipment by touch
Inductive loop in finger tip makes for simple ID system
Electronic signals can be conveyed in each direction for identification or programming or data transfer via contacts in the skin
A persons personal profile may be downloaded to an external system from data in the skin via such contacts. A computer can thus adapt instantly to the person using it
Data may be similarly ‘sucked up’ into body based storage via such contacts
Other devices elsewhere on the skin may be temporarily connected via high frequency transmission through the skin to the external system
Patterns visible in infrared or UV regions may be used
Ultrasonic vibrations may be used
Synthetic textures may be produced by keys by means of producing different vibration patterns than material would normally produce. This would assist greatly in the use of virtual environments to create synthetic objects
Actuators based on for example muscle wire can be used to stretch the skin in various directions, which conveys much information to the body on texture and other feedback. This can be by means of a rectangular wire with muscle wire between two opposite corners
Heat and cold can be produced as a feedback mechanism
Positioning systems incorporating the fingertips by means of inductive loop tracking, motion detectors and dead reckoning systems, allow interaction with virtual objects.
People could type in air, and feel physical feedback on interaction with objects, particularly useful in surgery using robotic tools.
Active skin with muscle wires implanted or imprinted at finger joints give a force feedback mechanism
Links between people may be formed by linking sensors in one person’s joints to actuators in another person’s. This would be useful for training purposes.
Vibrating membranes may be used as a signalling device. Vibration can be implemented via muscle wires or piezoelectric crystals in the detachable layer. These would allow personal signalling systems, ringing vibration, and development of synthetic senses*.
They may have some use in insect repellence if vibrations are ultrasonic
Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMs) implanted in the fingertips would allow a fingertip to be used as a mouse for a computer, by tracking movement accurately
Fingertip sensors could similarly be used to capture textures for re-use in virtual environment applications
Textures can be recreated in the fingertips by means of vibration devices
Electronic cash could be transferred through active fingerprints which also contain the authentication mechanisms as well as the means to transfer the cash
Short term software licenses could be implemented in this way, with the fingertip effectively holding a dongle

Ultrasonic monitors

An array of active skin devices may be arranged around the abdominal region of a pregnant woman, that would allow easy periodic ultrasonic monitoring of the baby during pregnancy.
Some patches of active skin would house ultrasound generators, and others would house ultrasound receivers. The system is therefore capable of bathing the baby in a well defined ultrasound field for monitoring purposes.
The patterns of reflections can be analysed by either processors in active skin or by a remote device, either worn or via the network, e.g. at a clinic. This produces images of the baby that can determine whether there is a problem. For instance, heartbeat and baby movements can easily be monitored.
Growth of cancers may be monitored in much the same way, with alerts automatically sent to hospital via the network if tumour size or growth rate exceeds a defined limit
A simple microphone may be sufficient for just heartbeat monitoring if that is all that is needed.
Ultrasonic communication to an external systems or another active skin device nearby.

Touch and proximity sensitive membranes

A region of active skin on the arm may be used as a data entry device such as a keyboard by means of adding positioning information such as digital paper patterns or other indication of location.
A simple circuit completion would suffice that could be implemented by contacts in close proximity that are connected when pressed, or by a sudden change in resistance or capacitance
Arm-embedded components can interact with active fingerprint components to enable easy data entry. Data may be transferred between arm and finger components
Different components in different fingers increase dramatically the range of combinations available. Different fingers may represent different tools in a drawing package for example
Visible patterns on the arm could indicate where the letters or other keys are. This indication could be a simple ink pattern.
Alternatively, display components in the skin may be used to create a dynamic keyboard or interface with different inputs according to application
Alternatively, a virtual display in a head-up display worn by the user could indicate the position of the appropriate keys without any visible pattern on the skin. Positioning may be by means of image analysis or by means of processing of the inputs from various inbuilt strain gauges
With a virtual display, no components at all are actually required in the arm to implement the minimal system (similar systems already exist with purely virtual keyboards).
Deeper ink patterns could enable a longer term keyboard
Data from the interface can be stored locally in memory implants or relayed at high frequency across the skin to other active skin system components
This could be used as a dialling keypad for cellphones
It may be used to enter security identification codes
A keyboard may be implanted in the palm of the hand as an alternative to the forearm to allow a computer to be effectively a ‘palm computer’, a ‘digital computer’, calculator or
interface to any electronic device carried on the person or across the network
signals from the interface may be relayed by a radio device elsewhere on the body

Use of strain gauges for touch sensitivity

A high degree of touch sensitivity is afforded by the body’s own sensory system, so this could act as a very high precision interface for some applications. The amount of pressure, or characteristics of strokes may be easily detected by the wearer to accurately control their input. Detection of this input can be by means of strain or relative position sensors
Alternatively, in later generations of the devices, signals may be directly picked up from the nervous system and appropriate analysis used to determine the precise input.
Touch or proximity sensors such as capacitors, inductors, piezoelectric strain gauges, movement detectors, or other devices in the arm can detect key-presses or drawing movements and could act as a mousepad
Relative movement between active skin components in touch sensitive membranes indicates not only what has been pressed but also by how much
Movement may be measured by change of capacitance between components, or change of resistance in conductive polymers attached to the skin, by induction changes, change of skin resistance itself, accumulated mechanical stress measurement or by other means
A system comprised of a range of such gauges and position sensors in various parts of the body may be used to gather a great deal of data about the movement of the body.
This may be used extensively in training and correction applications by means of force feedback or sensory amplification.
Force feedback or other actuator components* would give a signal or apply a force back to the body on detection of various parameter values. Movements may be precisely recorded and recreated via force feedback.
An expert recording the correct procedure can use such recording and force feedback to ‘play back’ a correct movement into the student. Repeated practice of the correct movement would enable rapid training
Computer games may also make use of this system in a ‘training mode’, where users learn to behave appropriately, thus improving the quality of game play
Highly specialised interfaces may be developed using a collection of appropriately configured gauges or sensors, with appropriate force of signal feedback devices
Such systems may be used to record the behaviour of people or animals for research, monitoring or policing purposes
Signal feedback systems may allow direct correction of such behaviours. See alarm systems.
The means to directly associate a movement or behaviour with pain would be a valuable means of training and controlling animals or criminals. Such feedback may also be linked to emotional states to control aggression for example. A combination of movements, position or emotional state may be used to prohibit certain behaviours in certain locations.
Strain gauges would be an important component of avatar based communication systems to allow the direct physical interaction of people across a network, whether a handshake or a hug or something more.

Force feedback and other actuators in skin

A range of actuators may be implanted or injected for various purposes
Muscle wires may be used as simple actuators
Some polymer gels may be made to respond mechanically to various stimuli. These may be used as synthetic muscles in some systems and membranes composed of these may be key active skin components
Membranes with arrays of holes may be used to control drug delivery as part of an active skin system. Such membranes may be dumb, or may contract in response to electronic or thermal stimuli from other components. Obviously holes will contract as the membrane contracts, thereby giving a means of controlling drug dosing
Such membranes may provide a convenient means of allowing blood exchange for blood cleaning and processing (e.g. for dialysis)
Ultrasonic actuators may be used or signalling between devices
Lower frequency may be used to create sensation of texture
Stretching, compression and torsion may be used in force feedback and signalling
Actuators may be used to open or close holes in the skin or activate skin conduits*
These holes may be used usefully as part of drug delivery systems or as a means of implanting devices or other materials
They may be used extensively as part of force feedback and interface devices as described above for training, communication, monitoring or corrective purposes
Systems using combinations of such force feedback and actuators may be used for medical purposes
Holes with actuators mounted across them may be opened or closed on command
These work in conjunction with higher layers to allow smart and precise drug delivery in a feedback loop with monitoring systems. Health or nerve signal monitors may allow direct control of such holes and actuators in drug dispensers
Actuators may respond directly to skin temperature
Actuators may form part of alarm systems
Exoskeletal structures based on actuators may be implemented to give physical assistance or support, especially for disabled or frail people. This would require large areas of such actuator membranes
Physical appearance may be controlled to a degree by such membranes or implants, that would shape the body, reduce wrinkles, reduce the impact of fat, tone muscles etc
They may work in conjunction with electrical stimuli for muscle toning, which currently needs external pads and power supplies

Active contact lens

Active contact lens has been wholly disclosed in the form of a removable contact lens that acts as a dumb display
It could however be differently realised by using active skin instead of a detachable contact lens
Active contact lens may include actuator components that stretch or compress the eye to correct vision for all distances
Lens components could be implanted in eye surface using above techniques
Signals displayed may originate in other active skin components elsewhere on body
Processing may be embedded in nearby skin outside the eye
Powering could be inductive or ultrasonic
Tracking of the eyeball can be in conjunction with other nearby components such as proximity and position detectors
Light may be produced externally (e.g. by lasers adjacent to the eyeball) and the lens merely reflects it to its proper destination by means of micromirrors
Lens film may contain identification circuitry or data that can be conveyed to an external system by passive recognition or active transmission
Images seen by the eye may be processed and recorded by nearby active skin components and relayed to storage or transmitted on a network
Appropriate implanted dyes could facilitate ultraviolet vision
Appropriate infrared detectors and lasers may be used to enable infrared vision
Other sensory data from sensors elsewhere on the skin or fully externally, may be projected in the image produced by the active skin implant

Skin-based processing, memory, and consumer electronics

Miniaturised circuitry will soon allow very small versions of many popular devices.
These circuits may fit in a single skin capsule or be distributed across several capsules.
These capsules contain means to connect with others and with the outside as well as housing some electronics capability
They will be able to produce phones, calculators, computers, storage devices, MP3 players, identifiers, electronic cash, text readers, scanners
Some of these would benefit from being implemented in active fingerprint systems
Capsules may be directly injected or inserted into a skin conduit, perhaps facilitated by various actuators for positioning and connection
They may be easily ejected by the skin conduits if necessary
Ingestion or ejection may be by means of peristaltic motion of the skin conduit, facilitated by means of contractible rings
A wide range of sensors are now available in watches and other small wearable devices, to monitor parameters such as air and skin temperature, air pressure, direction, blood pressure, pulse, heart beat, walking distance, GPS location and navigation, paging, infrared controls, voice recording and others. Many of these can be sufficiently miniaturised to be embedded in or on one or more active skin layers. The performance of some of the sensors would be improved
Membrane based transfers implementing these devices may be easily attached to the skin and easily removed if required. They may co-operate with other permanent or temporary active skin devices
Transfer based electronic jewellery* may interact with smart cosmetics* and other inbuilt processing or memory

Body-avatar link

Avatars will be an important communication tool in the near future. Avatars may be controlled manually or via video image interpretation, which is complex and invasive. Active skin presents an efficient means of accurately controlling avatars.
Sensors in skin at key parts of the body, e.g. finger joints, hands, wrists, elbows and face can be used to detect body movement and position.
They may also detect emotional state and audio
Data from the sensors may be transmitted to a central body transmitter for collation, pre-processing or simply transmission
This information is relayed via active skin or other transmitters to a computer, phone or other conferencing device. The phone may itself be an active skin component
The body position and movement information is transmitted across the link, and used to control the avatar movements directly
Interactions between avatars in virtual space are relayed back to the people involved via force feedback membranes, pressure transducers, smart fingerprints to convey texture, and direct nerve stimulation using nerve links.
A highly sensory realistic communications link is thus established between the inhabitants of the virtual environment which is potentially far richer than that which may be obtained without the use of active skin or a full body suit.
Inhabitants need not be real people, but may be synthetic entities such as computer game characters or interactive TV avatars
Almost all functions of body suits may be replaced by active skin components, which do not interfere with normal clothing and are therefore much less invasive
If all the above components are implemented in active skin, it is possible that avatars may be controlled without the knowledge of anyone else present, making a very discrete interface
Instead of controlling avatars, the link may be used to directly control a robot. Sensors in the robot could be linked to senses in the human, allowing a high quality implementation of telepresence and teleaction. This would be very useful for surgery or for maintenance in hostile environments. It would also be useful for police or military use to control robots or androids in hostile environments.
Surgical applications could be enhanced by filtering and pre-processing the body movements and possible translating them into a appropriate actions for robotic surgical apparatus. For example, large jerky hand movements may be converted into small smoother scalpel movements.
Again, such systems may be used extensively for training or correction purposes, or for interaction with computer games
Interactive TV may use such avatar links to permit greater participation of remote audience members
Visual systems may be linked to such active skin avatar links so that people can interact with avatars on the move rather than just when confined to a conferencing suite or in front of a computer monitor
This permits people to interact fully with virtual objects and characters overlaid in the real environment

EEG patches

An array of smart skin patches on the scalp could be arranged to collect electrical signals from the brain.
Such devices could make it less invasive for EEG patients who need repeated investigation
Devices would signal using high frequency electrical signals or by ultrasound to other sensors or collectors or processors.
Signals could be relayed to external apparatus by a single contact point or by means of radio aerials, LEDs or an active bindi.
Such signals may be used for conventional medical analysis purposes,
or may be used for thought recognition purposes, whereby pattern recognition technology is applied to analysis of the signals from the various sensors.
Sensors need not only be on the scalp, but could be anywhere on the body, such as fingertips.
Lie detection may be implemented using a combination of data regarding such brain signals and other data regarding emotional state, blood hormone or other chemical content, skin conductivity, temperature, pulse etc All of these data types are liable to address by active skin variants
Signals from the scalp may be used to control medical prostheses to assist disabled people. The intention to move an arm could result in the arm moving for example. Nerve signals for such applications may be detected on the scalp, or nearer to the prosthesis.
Active skin in the stump could be used for this purpose and also to inject synthetic senses back into the nervous system by way of feedback from the prosthesis
Such patches may be used as a component of a policing system for criminals, whereupon certain types of thought pattern result in the creation of pain

Use with or in place of active clothing

Many of the applications discussed above would work well in harmony with active clothing, most of which is known technology. Active clothing already houses consumer electronics, reacts thermally and optically to the environment, monitors body activity, reports on injuries and casualty location, injects antibiotics, antiseptics and anaesthetics in case of battlefield injury. A wide variety of other ‘smart’ capabilities is also available off the shelf or in prototype.

Some of these clothes require data that can best be obtained by active skin. For example:

Active skin can house the identity and personal profile for use by active clothing
Active clothing may provide the power supply or communications for active skin
Active clothing may contain medical apparatus that is controlled in conjunction with active skin and a remote clinic
Active skin may actually replace some clothing in terms of thermal and chemical protection
Active skin may act as a final line of defence on a battlefield by filtering out hostile bacteria, viruses or chemicals and in due course act to protect against nanotechnology or micro-technology attack
Active skin may physically repair organic skin tissues or augment them with self-organising self-constructing membranes
Active skin may contain synthetic hairs that may be extended or contracted to provide variable thermal protection, and also to help filter out bacteria
With a high degree of such protection against nature, clothing may be more optional, especially if active inks and other display components are used to change the optical appearance of the body for cultural reasons
Key active skin components of this system are displays, actuators, sensors, reservoirs, membranes, processors, signalling and aerials

Skin capsules

A range of skin capsules for various purposes may be developed, which are capable of being injected into the skin by high pressure air, or inserted through skin conduits
Skin conduits themselves may be implanted as a special case of skin capsules. They may start off as a spherical device and then open up into a ‘pore’ once implanted
Skin capsules may contain drugs or other chemicals for various purposes
They may house substantial quantities of electronics for processing, memory, analysis or sensory purposes
They may house MEM devices that are capable of mechanical interaction with surrounding tissues
They may house a range of actuator devices or wires
They may house wires for the purpose of connection to nearby capsules or devices, for example to make antennas
They may house identification devices or data
These wires may be metallic, organic polymer, shape memory alloy, memory plastic, or buckminster fullerene tubes
Capsules may be made of any materials that is largely inert regarding body tissues. Titanium and its alloys, glass and ceramics, diamond film coated materials, gold, platinum and surgical steel and many plastics, as well as some biodegradable and soluble materials etc would be good for some purposes, but other materials may be better for some purposes

Drug delivery system

Drugs may be administered under control by means of active skin systems
Membranes may be contracted so that the holes shrink and drugs cannot permeate as quickly through the membrane
Blood chemistry may be analysed by active skin lower layers to detect the amount of drugs needed in order to control such membranes. They can also monitor the rate of diffusion of the drug into the bloodstream
Clinics can communicate via the network with such systems and active skin devices react to such communication to effect drug delivery under remote supervision, while sensors in the body transmit their information via aerials to the clinic
Membranes may be made to react to environmental conditions such as pollen content. These can then form part of the sensory array as well as permitting appropriate diffusion of anti-allergy drugs
Drugs may be contained in external reservoirs or in skin capsules* or in patches e.g. nicotine patches. The rates of diffusion may be altered by means of active membranes or via skin conduits.

Animal husbandry technology

Active skin drug delivery systems* may be used extensively on farm livestock to control drugs use on a wide scale
Captured wild animals may be tagged and fitted with such systems to control their reproduction or behaviours, or to protect them against diseases
Active skin tags may be used to track and monitor the behaviour of such animals
Sensory stimulation and translation devices may be used to train animals for certain tasks
This may also be used in conjunction with control systems to automatically steer or co-ordinate groups of animals
Sensory systems in individual animals may be linked together with others, not necessarily of the same species, to make super-sensory collections of animals with unusual properties
Robotic animals may be able to interface with real ones by manipulating their sensory inputs
Drug development may be enhanced by gaining extra feedback via active skin technology on the condition of animals being experimented upon